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While strokes affect an increasing number of people each year, they are almost entirely preventable. Sometimes, the risk factors are genetic, but the large number of people having strokes could at the very least reduce their risk of experiencing this awful medical condition. Here are ten ways people can lower their stroke risk and live longer.
- Stop Smoking. Smoking puts incredible strain on your heart and blood vessels. It can create obstructions there that block proper blood flow, and it makes your major systems, particularly your heart, work harder to produce less energy the more you smoke.
- Stop Drinking Alcohol. Like smoking, drinking alcohol can have a severe effect on your body’s system. It contains copious amounts of fat and cholesterol that can be nearly impossible to get rid of. These are two components that contribute heavily to a risk of stroke.
- Eat Healthier. Your eating habits determine how healthy your heart is. If you eat many fatty, oily or greasy foods, your blood vessels will clog up and your heart will not be able to receive blood or send it out where it needs to go at a healthy rate.
- Fight Depression. The link between your emotional state and physical health is becoming increasingly obvious to medical experts. You need to combat depression when you start to experience it in order to prevent stroke effectively.
- Increase Your Physical Activity. Most people do not get enough exercise. Even if you are not overweight, you still need exercise regularly. This works your heart hard enough that it can become strong. Keep in mind that your heart is a muscle., and it needs the occasional workout to stay in shape.
- Decrease Your Blood Fat Levels. A high blood fat level is associated with an increased risk of stroke. In particular, the blood fats apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein AI are ones to work on keeping from your bloodstream.
- Reduce Abdominal Obesity. Any kind of obesity can harm your heart, but abdominal obesity is the most serious kind. This type of obesity is close to your heart, and that muscle has to work much harder to combat the effects of obesity, wearing it out before its time.
- Prevent Diabetes. Have regular checkups for diabetes to ensure you are not at risk.
- Pay Attention to Your History of High Blood Pressure. If your doctor notes that you have high blood pressure, you may want to check your medical history to see if you have had it in the past. That can be a sign that you are at risk for stroke. Having the issue diagnosed and treated can make a big difference.
- Prevent heart Disease. A history of heart disease puts you at risk for stroke as well, and you want to do everything you can to ensure that you are preventing heart disease.
The beautiful city of Provo is in the state of Utah, US. It is known as the third largest town in the state with a population of around 112,000. Its weather and geography with mountains and lakes serve as a setting for adventurous outdoor activities such as skiing, fishing, kayaking, hiking, horseback riding, biking and floating. It is also known for its culture and has many cultural sites such as churches and museums. Furthermore, the restaurants in the city offer a huge variety of cuisines to tourists. Following are some of the reasons why Provo, UT is the best place to have a vacation
Culture and Arts
It won’t be wrong to call Provo the cultural hub of the state of Utah. Its art galleries and museums do not only culturally enrich the community but also provide educational opportunities for natives and tourists. Furthermore, the great Covey Center for Arts features musical performances, ballets, and plays throughout the year.
Safe and Lively Environment
According to safewise.com Provo is one of the safest cities in the state of Utah which when combined with the pleasant environment of the city makes it one of the best tour destinations. Moreover, according to liveability.com, it is 16th among the 100 livable cities.
Festivals and Parties
Provo is among the top cities in Utah when it comes to throwing a fantastic celebration or party. Festivals and parties such as Utah Pacifica Festival, Annual Valentine’s day Dinner and Movie and romance ball are among the best.
It has many tourist attractions – natural as well as artificial. Natural attractions include bridal veils, a scenic stop through canyons; Utah Lake, and Provo River are very popular for fishing and water sports. Moreover, artificial attractions include a Museum of people and culture, laser assault – Laser Tag Park, max zip line amusement park.
Bars and Nightlife
Along with culture, Provo also offers fun living and genuine entertainment. With bars like OWL bar, AGB’s bar, and red rock, etc. its nightlife won’t disappoint you.
Human beings always require a teacher, a parent, a friend or a mentor to guide them through their difficult times. Similarly, the most difficult part of an entrepreneur’s life is to get started and keep motivated to achieve your goals. Entrepreneurs, to run a successful business, regularly break rules and make mistakes. For this reason, a mentor is a valuable asset for entrepreneurs. Following are some of the reasons why having a mentor is critical for entrepreneurs and why they should listen to their mentor’s advice.
Mentors Keep You Motivated
By far the hardest part of an entrepreneur’s life is to get started on a business idea. Having a mentor makes things easy. A mentor will always advise you, encourage you and get you started on your business plan and once you have begun he will do everything to keep you motivated.
They have walked the Walk
Since your mentor has already “been there and done that”. It is always a great approach to talking about your problems with your instructor and get their advice on situations. They can easily get you out of the worst of the conditions; all you need to do is follow their advice.
If you are starting a new marketing campaign, launching a new product or even an entirely new business the best way to decrease the possibility of failure is to get your mentor involved. Getting his advice at different stages will help reduce the number of mistakes you make and will ensure the success of the project.
They Help You Build Confidence
Starting something new is always risky, and we all get anxious and nervous. However, getting advice from your mentor will help you re-build your confidence. For example, if you are starting a new business in a domain in which you are not as much experienced can cause uncertainty but simple words from your mentor that how he started something he didn’t even know about would give you the confidence of starting the business.
There are a whole lot of web host right now that can offer you a server space to build your online site. However, it doesn’t guarantee that they are capable to host your website depending on your needs. Only a few can be trusted and can be considered efficient enough to provide hosting solutions – whether you are running a personal or business site. An example would be the SiteGround which is one of the top web host companies nowadays. This company has garnered recognition from major web owners and has received great remarks from their users which are evident in each SiteGround review you can find on the Internet. When you are serious about your website, then there is no room for any mistakes when looking for a web host to provide you the hosting solution necessary to have your website running to its full capacity.
Avoiding Free and Choosing Wisely
Free services are mushrooming around the web. But when you are serious about your web site, you have to avoid these types of companies. They will lure you to choose them because you will not have to pay a single cent when you subscribe. But these are just tactics to get you to sign up. Once you have your account, you will realize that you have very little to begin with. You cannot reach the full potential of your website not unless you pay for extra features and software. And just when you spend more than you have to, you found out that you always experience downtime and your connection is too slow. It is not impossible to think that maybe in a couple of months from when you start your website, you will face the nightmare of having your hosting company shut it down because they can no longer offer you their services.
When you choose a web host, it is simply not about getting a space for you to launch your website. It is also about searching for a company that can empower and facilitate your needs from selling your goods and services and promoting them, and give you a way to interact with your site visitors so you can easily turn them into loyal customers. It is imperative that before you decide on which web host to go to, you do enough research and be knowledgeable so you will not be easily enticed by free offers that would just lead you to having lots of problems and lose profits in the long run.
SiteGround, a Smart Choice
SiteGround offers you nothing but the best when it comes to hosting solutions and making your website powerful enough to compete in the online community. They have enough features, applications, software and even technological facilities to house and boost your site for the years to come. Here are the amazing features you get when you go with SiteGround as your online business partner that will fuel your site:
Start your website in no time with their unique services that will provide you with a tool for a quick website set up and an additional premium support where you can get immediate help when you are building your site. With just a few clicks, you can already have your business running and start earning profits, whether you are new in the online industry or not.
Unlimited web space and unlimited parked domains and sub domains. This will give you the flexibility to build a name for yourself, expand your business as well as establish your online presence.
You are off to a great start because SiteGround will give you free advertising credits, SEO tools and website promotional tutorials. Talk about a web host that cares about your future and what matters to you the most.
Expect high uptime guarantee and fast server speed because of their top facilities that include unique server configuration, multiple suppliers for their internet and electricity and 24/7 network monitoring.
Whenever you have any issues or simply seek assistance, they have around the clock technical support through Help Desk as well as live chat with an assurance that they can respond to your most critical issues in less than five minutes.
SiteGround will Keep You on Top
Web hosting companies play a major role in today’s online business community. Without their services, web site owners will find a hard time building and developing their virtual markets. Since hosting companies have major roles in any online business, it is important that those who are selling their goods and services through the Internet find a web host that is not only efficient but should be exemplary when it comes to hosting solutions. There are so many reasons why you should choose SiteGround over other web hosting companies right now like fatcow hosting. The features and services are accurate and the SiteGround review can validate how true they are especially when delivering what they promised.
Pokemon Go can be daunting for both players new to the Pokemon franchise, and even veteran players unfamiliar with the differences from the normal Pokemon gameplay. This page highlights some of the bigger Things Pokemon Go Doesn’t Tell You about controls, mechanics, and other useful tips.
If you happen to live, work, or just be in an area near one of the PokeStops, you’ll notice that the color changes from blue to purple once interacted with. If you hang around the area for a bit, you’ll find it goes back to its blue color after 5 or so minutes (times can vary), allowing you to easily stock up on Poke Balls, and gain 50 xp a pop, which is useful if you find yourself stuck someplace where Pokemon are not appearing.
Transfer Duplicate Pokemon For Candy
Leveling Pokemon doesn’t work the same as other games, since you don’t battle Pokemon in the wild. Instead, each Pokemon caught will come with a few of that Pokemon’s candy, as well as Stardust. Both of these items will need to be gathered to train your Pokemon, and the candy in particular is needed to evolve Pokemon.
An easy way to obtain more candy is to transfer any duplicate Pokemon you catch in the wild. Find two Squirtles? Transfer one (which is the same as letting it go) and you’ll be rewarded with a Squirtle candy. It’s important to never pass up a Pokemon you find – even if you already have that one!
Pokemon and PokeStops in Motion
Whether you’re on a bus, in a car, taking a train, or whatever — you’ll find that you can still play Pokemon Go on the go and your avatar will faithfully run down the streets to keep up. This can be both a blessing and a curse, because you’ll often pass through several potential PokeStops or Pokemon.
It’s important to note that when interacting with PokeStops, if you leave the area, you won’t be able to finish interacting with it — and interaction is often best saved when you’re slowing down or stopped in a moving vehicle. However, any Pokemon that is encountered and engaged will stay with you, letting you catch them at your leisure (so long as they don’t flee).
And of course: please don’t play Pokemon and drive.
As exciting as exploring new and unknown places for Pokemon are, you won’t have to brave the most dangerous places on Earth to find rare Pokemon – instead your personal level will dictate the rarity of Pokemon that appear. To start, you’ll often encounter basic pokemon (Zubats, Charmanders, Weedles, etc) but as you gain in level, there will be a better chance of finding both Pokemon with higher Combat Power (CP), and rare Pokemon in general.
Tougher and rarer Pokemon will often be harder to catch – a green ring means an easy catch, yellow harder, and then orange and red. Difficult Pokemon may often break out of a Pokeball, or even run away. Consider using Items to make it easier before trying against these Pokemon.
When trying to incubate a Pokemon Egg, you’ll have to travel a distance of several kilometers (varying from 2 to 5 to 10). While you might be tempted to simply drive the distance, there’s more to it than distance traveled. Pokemon Go uses both your phone’s pedometer as well as the GPS to calculate how far you’ve actually walked, and appears to limit your distance traveled if it clocks you going at high speeds. Distance traveled is still counted fairly accurately if done on a skateboard, as long as you don’t go too fast.
Note: The app must be active to count your steps. This means if you go for a walk, the app must stay running and you must be logged in and playing for it to count your steps.
Once your trainer is level 5, you can finally visit Pokemon Gyms and battle against other trainers. If you visit a Gym with your team’s color – or take over one of the opposing color, you can store your Pokemon there and become a Gym Defender. Immediately thereafter you can check the Shop tab and click on the shield icon to access your Defender Bonus for free PokeCoins and Stardust. Check back every 20~ hours (so long as your pokemon have not been dethroned) and to recieve more (the amount may vary depending on how many Pokemon you have in the gym, or their CP).
Contrary to most Pokemon games, Gym Battles in Pokemon Go are not turn based – though attacks can’t be literally spammed either. To attack, simply tap the screen, and your Pokemon will deal its first attack as soon as its able. To deal a special attack, you will need to hold down on the screen and release. In order to perform a special attack, you will need to charge the meter below a pokemon’s health until a bar is full – different special attacks have different meters. To dodge, swipe to the sides before the attack hits.
You can tell which move is the Pokemon’s basic attack and which is its special by the order the moves are listed in. For example, this Ekans will use Acid, and will only be able to attack with Sludge Bomb when one or both of the bars are filled by using Acid first.
When on the map, in the bottom right corner you can find a tab that lists any nearby Pokemon. Most of these Pokemon should have a number of 1 to 3 footprints under them, with 1 equaling close and 3 equaling farther away. However, sometimes you may find that a Pokemon listed has no footprints – if this is the case, track that Pokemon by tapping on it, and it should pop up on the map in a few seconds.
You can also track any nearby Pokemon by tapping on it and monitoring the list of nearby Pokemon. If you are moving closer to your selected target, the box in the bottom corner will start blinking when the Pokemon moves closer to the top of the list, and have less (or more) foot prints.
Note that simply seeing a patch of moving grass on the map doesn’t always mean a Pokemon will immediately pop up if you’re close enough – but some will often appear if you walk around the area long enough.
Pokemon Go includes an option in the settings to initiate a Battery Saver mode, but it doesn’t really explain what that does – in fact, simply turning it on won’t do much of anything.
To make use of Battery Saver, once turned on, simply turn your phone upside down, and the screen will darken to display a faint Pokemon Go logo. The game will still be on, and will still track your movements – you just won’t see it. However, you will still get a notification or rumble if you approach a Pokestop or a Pokemon appears, so you can quickly pull the phone out of your pocket to interact!
When trying to capture a pokemon in the wild some creatures may be harder to target than others – especially if they are flying or are located farther back in the screen. If your Poke Ball misses the target and falls to the ground nearby – you can pick them back up by tapping on them to recover the Poke Ball and avoid wasting tons of Poke Balls on one dodgy pokemon!
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WARREN, Mich. (WXYZ) – The video went viral: A Warren police officer strapping a young mother from Detroit into a restraint chair and slicing off her hair weave.
Now that same officer is once again caught cutting on camera – this time accused of slicing open a prisoner’s hand.
Lawyers who say they’ve followed this officer’s alleged “use of force” problems for years say it was only a matter of time before this happened again.
7 Investigator Heather Catallo obtained exclusive video from inside the Warren Police Jail.
In the video, you can see Warren Police Officer Bernadette Najor, who now uses her married name, Bernadette Moore.
In the video, Officer Moore can be seen ordering an intoxicated 19-year-old from Warren to remove a bracelet that’s made of string.
Shannon Morris says she tried telling the officer that the bracelet doesn’t come off. But she ends up on the ground, with a large gash in her hand.
“The next thing I remember is being on the floor asking what happened over and over again. One of the male officers just replied with ‘she stabbed you,’”said Morris.
This isn’t the first time we’ve seen this officer use a sharp object on a prisoner. Officer Moore made headlines around the world back in 2014 when the 7 Investigators first exposed how she strapped a young mother into a restraint chair and used scissors to slice off her sewn-in hair weave.
So how did a knife get into Officer Moore’s hands, when weapons are not allowed inside Warren’s lock up?
“I didn’t feel like I was a human anymore, the way they had treated me,” said Morris.
Morris admits that since she’s only 19, she should not have been drinking back on April 2, 2016. But Morris says she’s actually the one who called the police, hoping to thwart a drug deal from taking place near her house.
“I was pushed around. I wasn’t treated like I had any value at all, when I was trying to do was help in the beginning,” said Morris.
Belligerent and intoxicated, Warren police took Morris into custody. Morris says she suffers from depression and anxiety, and doesn’t remember much of her arrest.
After the scuffle over her string friendship bracelets, police reports show that those do get removed. Then the officers try to remove the drawstring of Shannon’s pants. One of the male officers asked a third officer to get the safety scissors. Instead, Officer Moore “produced a pocket knife and cut the strings out herself.”
That’s when her hand got sliced.
“She didn’t stop bleeding the entire night. We’re not talking about a small injury. We’re not talking about a laceration. We’re talking about a gash,” said Attorney Paul Misukewicz. Misukewicz said he wasn’t surprised to learn Officer Moore caused his client’s injuries.
“As soon as I heard the name, I said oh boy,” said Misukewicz.
Misukewicz also represented Charda Gregory, the woman who had her weave cut off by force. Misukewicz says Warren Police did the right thing when they fired Officer Moore for that. But an arbitrator forced the city to hire Moore back, because there was not a clear policy that prevented weave removals.
“She should have never got her job back, that arbitrator – that was a miscarriage of justice,” said Misukewicz.
But this time there is a very clear policy: you cannot have weapons in the lock-up.
“It’s right there in their policy manual – it’s unquestioned she violated policy by bringing that knife in to the jail,” said Misukewicz.
Shannon Morris and Charda Gregory are not the only women who say they’ve been hurt by Officer Moore. The 7 Investigators uncovered police records that reveal at least 4 additional women who had issues with Officer Moore’s use of force.
“She took her boot and put it in my hair, and yanked her boot back, and pulled my hair out with her boot, and then kicked me in my side,” Virginia Hamilton told 7 Investigator Heather Catallo in 2015.
“She hit me with a closed fist – in the face,” said Kathy Buford in February 2015.
“I feel bad for the city of Warren, because it sucks that anyone has to work with her when they know she’s not doing her job,” said Morris. “They’re putting everyone at risk with having her work there.”
The city of Warren isn’t commenting about this, because Officer Moore is suing the police department and the Police Commissioner for firing her after the weave-cutting incident.
As for Shannon Morris, she is facing six misdemeanor charges.
We have also learned that Officer Moore is now facing an unpaid suspension.
Moore’s attorneys released a statement to us: “Officer Moore is an excellent police officer doing a difficult job. On a daily basis, people are brought to jail angry, intoxicated, delusional, and worse. Moore treats everyone with respect, even those who assault her and there have been many over the years.”
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Nearly two and a half millennia ago, Aristotle triggered a revolution in happiness. At the time, Greek philosophers were trying hard to define precisely what this state of being was. Some contended that it sprang from hedonism, the pursuit of sensual pleasure. Others argued from the perspective of tragedy, believing happiness to be a goal, a final destination that made the drudge of life worthwhile. These ideas are still with us today, of course, in the decadence of Instagram and gourmet-burger culture or the Christian notion of heaven. But Aristotle proposed a third option. In his Nicomachean Ethics, he described the idea of eudaemonic happiness, which said, essentially, that happiness was not merely a feeling, or a golden promise, but a practice. “It’s living in a way that fulfills our purpose,” Helen Morales, a classicist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, told me. “It’s flourishing. Aristotle was saying, ‘Stop hoping for happiness tomorrow. Happiness is being engaged in the process.’ ” Now, thousands of years later, evidence that Aristotle may have been onto something has been detected in the most surprising of places: the human genome.
The finding is the latest in a series of related discoveries in the field of social genomics. In 2007, John Cacioppo, a professor of psychology and behavioral neuroscience at the University of Chicago, and Steve Cole, a professor of medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, among others, identified a link between loneliness and how genes express themselves. In a small study, since repeated in larger trials, they compared blood samples from six people who felt socially isolated with samples from eight who didn’t. Among the lonely participants, the function of the genome had changed in such a way that the risk of inflammatory diseases increased and antiviral response diminished. It appeared that the brains of these subjects were wired to equate loneliness with danger, and to switch the body into a defensive state. In historical and evolutionary terms, Cacioppo suggested, this reaction could be a good thing, since it helps immune cells reach infections and encourages wounds to heal. But it is no way to live. Inflammation promotes the growth of cancer cells and the development of plaque in the arteries. It leads to the disabling of brain cells, which raises susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease. In effect, according to Cole, the stress reaction requires “mortgaging our long-term health in favor of our short-term survival.” Our bodies, he concluded, are “programmed to turn misery into death.”
In early 2010, Cole spoke about his work at a conference in Las Vegas. Among the audience members was Barbara Fredrickson, a noted positive psychologist from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who had attended graduate school with Cole. His talk made her wonder: If stressful states, including loneliness, caused the genome to respond in a damaging way, might sustained positive experiences have the opposite result? “Eudaemonic and hedonic aspects of well-being had previously been linked to longevity, so the possibility of finding beneficial effects seemed plausible,” Fredrickson told me. The day after the conference, she sent Cole an e-mail, and by autumn of that year they had secured funding for a collaborative project. Fredrickson’s team would profile a group of participants, using questionnaires to determine their happiness style, then draw a small sample of their blood. Cole would analyze the samples and see what patterns, if any, emerged.
Fredrickson believed that hedonism would prove more favorable than eudaemonia—that discrete feelings of happiness would register on the genome more powerfully than abstract notions of meaning and purpose. Cole, meanwhile, was skeptical about the possibility of linking happiness and biology. He had worked with all kinds of researchers, trying to find a genomic response to everything from yoga to meditation to tai chi. Sometimes he made quite interesting findings, but more often the data provoked only a shrug. “Day after day, I see null results,” he told me. “Nothing there, nothing there, nothing there.” Fredrickson and Cole’s first study wasn’t huge, containing usable results from eighty people, but, because Cole had been studying misery for so long, he knew what to look for in the blood samples. “By this time, we had a pretty clear sense of the kinds of shifts in gene expression we see when people are threatened or uncertain,” he said. “We were in a good position, even in a relatively small study, to say, ‘These are the outcomes I’m going to look at.’ ”
When they parsed the data, they saw that Fredrickson’s prediction appeared to be wrong. “This whole hedonic well-being stuff—just how happy are you, how satisfied with life?—didn’t really correlate with gene expression at all,” Cole said. Then he checked the correlation with eudaemonic happiness. “When we looked at that, things actually looked quite impressive,” he said. The results, while small, were clearly significant. “I was rather startled.” The study indicated that people high in eudaemonic happiness were more likely to show the opposite gene profile of those suffering from social isolation: inflammation was down, while antiviral response was up. Since that first test, in 2013, there have been three successful replications of the study, including one of a hundred and eight people, and another of a hundred and twenty-two. According to Cole, the kind of effect sizes that are being found indicate that lacking eudaemonia can be as damaging as smoking or obesity. They also suggest that, although people high in eudaemonic happiness often experience plenty of the hedonic stuff, too, the associated health benefits tend to surface only in those who lead what Aristotle might have called a good life.
But what, precisely, is this quasi-mythical good life? What do we mean when we talk about eudaemonia? For Aristotle, it required a combination of rationality and arete—a kind of virtue, although that concept has since been polluted by Christian moralizing. “It did mean goodness, but it was also about pursuing excellence,” Morales told me. “For Usain Bolt, some of the training it takes to be a great athlete is not pleasurable, but fulfilling your purpose as a great runner brings happiness.” Fredrickson, meanwhile, believes that a key facet of eudaemonia is connection. “It refers to those aspects of well-being that transcend immediate self-gratification and connect people to something larger,” she said. But Cole noted that connectedness doesn’t appear to be an absolute precondition. “It seems unlikely that Usain Bolt is doing what he does to benefit humanity in any simply pro-social sense,” he said. “If that’s the case, is eudaemonic well-being mostly about the stretched goal, doing something you personally think is amazing or important? Or does it involve something more around pro-social behavior?” For Cole, the question remains open.
A further tantalizing clue might come from a distant corner of the academy. Since the early nineteen-seventies, the psychologist Brian R. Little has been interested in what he calls personal projects. He and his colleagues at Cambridge University, he told me, have “looked at literally tens of thousands of personal projects in thousands of participants.” Most people, Little’s work suggests, have around fifteen projects going at any time, ranging from the banal, like trying to get your wife to remember to switch off your computer once she’s used it (that’s one of mine), to the lofty, like trying to bring peace to the Middle East. Little refers to this second category as the “core” projects. One of his consistent findings is that, in order to bring us happiness, a project must have two qualities: it must be meaningful in some way, and we must have efficacy over it. (That is, there’s little use trying to be the fastest human in the world if you’re an overweight, agoraphobic retiree.) When I described Cole and Fredrickson’s research, Little noted that it was remarkably congruent with his ideas. As with eudaemonia, though, the precise definition of a core project is malleable. “Core projects can increase the possibilities for social connection, but not necessarily,” Little said. It all depends on an individual’s needs. “A Trappist monk’s core projects don’t require the same kind of connection as an everyday bloke from Birmingham.”
Indeed, this malleability is perhaps the most encouraging quality of both Little’s core project and Aristotle’s eudaemonia, because it makes finding happiness a real possibility. Even the most temperamentally introverted or miserable among us has the capacity to find a meaningful project that suits who we are. Locating it won’t just bring pleasure; it might also bring a few more years of life in which to get the project done.
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Philando Castile, 32, was shot Wednesday night by a police officer in suburban St. Paul, Minn., in the second fatal encounter between police and an African-American man to gain national attention this week.
Castile’s girlfriend, Diamond Reynolds, began streaming video live on Facebook immediately after the officer fired. In the stream she said Castile was stopped for a broken taillight, had notified the officer that he was licensed to carry a handgun and was reaching for his wallet at the officer’s request when he was shot.
The graphic video, which shows Castile suffering from a wound to his chest area, his shirt bloodied as he slumps in the car, has sparked outrage and protests in Falcon Heights, Minn., not far from where Castile worked as a cafeteria supervisor at the J.J. Hill Montessori Magnet School in the St. Paul Public School District. The school district said Thursday that its staff is grieving his “tragic death.” President Obama, without commenting on the particulars of the case, said that such incidents are “symptomatic of a broader set of racial disparities that exist in our criminal justice system.”
Minnesota’s Bureau of Criminal Apprehension is investigating, and Gov. Mark Dayton has asked the U.S. Justice Department to examine the case.
Late on Thursday, the BCA released the names of the two officers involved in the traffic stop, Minnesota Public Radio reported. Both officer Jeronimo Yanez, who reportedly shot Castile, and officer Joseph Kauser had been with the St. Anthony Police Department for four years and have been placed on administrative leave.
Today, Castile’s mother, Valerie, said that while her son tried to live by the law, “he was killed by the law.” His death has been ruled a homicide, the BCA reported.
At a press conference Thursday, Dayton called the shooting “totally unacceptable.” He said he found both the shooting and the aftermath “absolutely appalling at all levels,” noting in particular that no first aid was provided to Castile, while other police officers did attend to the officer who fired the shots. Dayton also criticized the “stark treatment” of Reynolds by police.
“Justice will be served,” Dayton said. “Justice must be served.”
“Would this have happened if those passengers, the driver and the passengers, were white?” said Dayton. “I don’t think it would have. So I’m forced to confront, and I think all of us in Minnesota are forced to confront, that this kind of racism exists.”
At the conference, a reporter asked whether the presence of online video shaped Dayton’s reaction to the shooting — noting that he had been much less outspoken about the police shooting of Jamar Clark last year. Dayton didn’t answer directly, but frequently referenced the video as he denounced Castile’s shooting.
Immediately after Castile was shot, his girlfriend — who uses the name Lavish Reynolds online — began streaming video to Facebook from the car in which she had been riding with Castile and her 4-year-old daughter.
We’ll embed the video here, with the warning that it contains images and language that viewers might find disturbing. You can also see it on Facebook. (The video was briefly removed from the site owing to what the tech giant called a “technical glitch,” TechCrunch reports, but has been reinstated.)
Speaking Thursday, Reynolds said she recorded the video because she wanted the world to see the truth and was afraid police would misrepresent the situation.
“I did it so that the world knows that these police are not here to protect and serve us,” she said. “They are here to assassinate us. They are here to kill us because we are black.”
“Stay with me,” Reynolds says at the start of the video, as her boyfriend clutches his side.
“We got pulled over for a busted taillight in the back,” Reynolds says, beginning to tell her story in a video that lasts for nearly 10 minutes. “The police just … he’s covered.”
“They killed my boyfriend,” she says as Castile sits in the car, occasionally crying out. “He’s licensed to carry. He was trying to get out his ID and his wallet out his pocket. And he let the officer know that he was — he had a firearm, and he was reaching for his wallet. And the officer just shot him in his arm.”
Reynolds is then interrupted by the shouts of a police officer who tells her to keep her hands where he can see them. As he speaks, he’s pointing the gun inside the car.
“I told him not to reach for it!” the officer yells, as he seems to take deep breaths. “I told him to get his hands up.”
“You told him to get his ID, sir — his driver’s license,” a remarkably composed Reynolds answers.
She then looks at her boyfriend and says, “Oh, my God, please don’t tell me he’s dead. Please don’t tell me my boyfriend just went like that.”
The officer then tells her to keep her hands where he can see them.
“Please don’t tell me this, Lord, please, Jesus, don’t tell me that he’s gone,” Reynolds says. She later adds, “Please, Officer, don’t tell me that you just did this to him. You shot four bullets into him, sir.”
Minnesota Public Radio has this profile of victim Philando Castile:
More than a minute into the video, other police officers order Reynolds out of the car. She complies — asking about her daughter as she does so (the video shows that the girl is being held in the arms of an officer).
A police officer then orders Reynolds to get on her knees, where we hear the sound of handcuffs being placed on her. Her phone is tossed onto the ground, but continues to record. The recording then captures the sound of an officer — seemingly the one who shot Castile — periodically yelling an obscenity.
Reynolds’ phone is then returned to her as she sits in the back seat of the police car with her daughter. Toward the end of the video, Reynolds becomes more emotional, screaming, “I can’t believe they did this.”
As Reynolds cries, her daughter tells her, “It’s OK, Mommy. It’s OK, I’m right here with you.”
Castile was later pronounced dead at a local hospital, family members tell the Minneapolis Star Tribune.
Pastor Danny Givens, who says he was “like a relative” to Castile, spoke to NPR’s Ari Shapiro on Thursday about his friend.
“There were so many amazing qualities and facets about this young man that it’s hard to believe this happened,” Givens said. “I mean, he was just the kind of man — he had eyes that just spoke life to you. You know, when he saw you, he saw you. And you felt seen by him.”
Minnesota Public Radio has more details on the traffic stop and subsequent protests:
“The traffic stop came at about 9 p.m. in the area of Larpenteur Avenue and Fry Street in Falcon Heights, near the Minnesota State Fair grounds.
“As news of the shooting spread, some 200 protesters gathered at one point near the site while authorities pursued the investigation, searching for evidence in and around the car.”
By 2 a.m., MPR reports, police had removed the car from the scene.
Police issued a brief statement last night, with St. Anthony Sgt. Jon Mangseth, who’s the interim chief, saying Reynolds and her daughter were not injured, and that they had been “transported to another police department agency.”
He added, “There is no other threat to the public at this time.”
Mangseth provided few details about the stop, other than to say that the primary officer who pulled the car over and a backup officer were both from St. Anthony.
He added that Minnesota’s BCA — the Bureau of Criminal Apprehension — had been called in to investigate “so we can learn what happened.”
Mangseth also said, “It’s not something that occurs in this area often.”
As MPR reports, “The Falcon Heights shooting comes just weeks after federal authorities declined to pursue charges against two Minneapolis officers in the Nov. 15 police shooting death of Jamar Clark. Hennepin County prosecutors also declined to press criminal charges against those officers.”
The fatal police encounter in Minnesota also comes close on the heels of a police shooting in Baton Rouge, La., earlier this week. In that incident, bystanders recorded video as Alton Sterling, 37, was pinned to the ground by two officers before being shot to death.
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The questions kids ask about science aren’t always easy to answer. Sometimes, their little brains can lead to big places adults forget to explore. With that in mind, we’ve started a series called Science Question From a Toddler, which will use kids’ curiosity as a jumping-off point to investigate the scientific wonders that adults don’t even think to ask about. The answers are for adults, but they wouldn’t be possible without the wonder only a child can bring. I want the toddlers in your life to be a part of it! Send me their science questions and they may serve as the inspiration for a column. And now, our toddler …
Q: I want to hear what the loudest thing in the world is! — Kara Jo, age 5
No. No, you really don’t. See, there’s this thing about sound that even we grown-ups tend to forget — it’s not some glitter rainbow floating around with no connection to the physical world. Sound is mechanical. A sound is a shove — just a little one, a tap on the tightly stretched membrane of your ear drum. The louder the sound, the heavier the knock. If a sound is loud enough, it can rip a hole in your ear drum. If a sound is loud enough, it can plow into you like a linebacker and knock you flat on your butt. When the shock wave from a bomb levels a house, that’s sound tearing apart bricks and splintering glass. Sound can kill you.
Consider this piece of history: On the morning of Aug. 27, 1883, ranchers on a sheep camp outside Alice Springs, Australia, heard a sound like two shots from a rifle. At that very moment, the Indonesian volcanic island of Krakatoa was blowing itself to bits 2,233 miles away. Scientists think this is probably the loudest sound humans have ever accurately measured. Not only are there records of people hearing the sound of Krakatoa thousands of miles away, there is also physical evidence that the sound of the volcano’s explosion traveled all the way around the globe multiple times.
Now, nobody heard Krakatoa in England or Toronto. There wasn’t a “boom” audible in St. Petersburg. Instead, what those places recorded were spikes in atmospheric pressure — the very air tensing up and then releasing with a sigh, as the waves of sound from Krakatoa passed through. There are two important lessons about sound in there: One, you don’t have to be able to see the loudest thing in the world in order to hear it. Second, just because you can’t hear a sound doesn’t mean it isn’t there. Sound is powerful and pervasive and it surrounds us all the time, whether we’re aware of it or not.
In general, our world is much more crowded than we think it is. We all live life like we’re Maria von Trapp, swinging our arms around in an empty field. In reality, we’re more like commuters on the subway at 5 p.m. — hemmed in in every direction by the molecules that make up the air around us. Snap your fingers and you jostle the particles right next to you. As they wiggle, they bump into the particles next to them, which, in turn, nudge the particles next to them.
These wiggles are what the world’s barometers were measuring in the wake of the Krakatoa eruption. Again, think of being on a crowded train car. If you were to hip check the person standing next to you — which I do not recommend — they would tense up and scoot away from you. In the process, they’d probably bump into the next person, who would tense up and shimmy away from them. (There would also be words exchanged, but that is neither germane to our thought experiment nor child friendly.) Meanwhile, though, that original person you bumped into has now relaxed. The pattern travels through the crowd — bump-tense-wiggle-sigh, bump-tense-wiggle-sigh.
That’s what a sound wave looks like. It’s also why you can’t hear sounds in space. Being in a vacuum is like being in an empty subway car — there’s no molecular medium for the pattern of movement, tension and release to travel through. Likewise, sound travels a bit differently in water than it does in air, because the molecules in water are more tightly packed — a Tokyo subway car compared to one in New York.
For instance, the loudest animal on Earth might, in fact, live in the ocean. Sperm whales use echolocation to navigate, similar to what bats use — they make a clicking sound and can figure out what’s around by the way that sound wave bounces off objects and returns to them. A sperm whale’s click is 200 decibels, the unit used to measure the intensity of a sound, said Jennifer Miksis-Olds, associate professor of acoustics at Penn State. To give you a sense of the scale, the loudest sound NASA has ever recorded was the first stage of the Saturn V rocket, which clocked in at 204 decibels.
But the whale is not really as loud as the rocket, she told me. Because water is denser than air, sound in water is measured on a different decibel scale. In air, the sperm whale would still be extremely loud, but significantly less so — 174 decibels. That’s roughly equivalent to the decibel levels measured at the closest barometer, 100 miles away from the Krakatoa eruption, and is loud enough to rupture people’s ear drums. Suffice to say, you probably don’t want to spend a lot of time swimming with the sperm whales.
|A mosquito from 20 feet away||0|
|Conversation at home||50|
|A motorcycle from 25 feet away||90|
|Chelyabinsk meteor from 400 miles away||✓||90|
|Mine crushing machine from 328 feet away||✓||127|
|Deck of an aircraft carrier||140|
|NASA’s acoustic testing chamber for satellites||163|
|Krakatoa from 100 miles away||172|
|Sperm whale echolocation||174|
|Saturn V Rocket||204|
Because sound is all about the motion of invisible objects, it’s also possible for that motion to happen and for you not to hear it. That’s because the molecules have to wiggle just right when they hit our eardrum. If the motion is going through the crowd of molecules too slowly or too quickly, our body can’t transfer that motion into signals our brains understand. This is called frequency, and it’s measured in hertz. Humans can hear a pretty broad range — 64 hertz to 23,000 hertz.1
But hertz and decibels are independent of one another. A sound can be extremely loud and still be at a frequency that we can’t hear. That’s what traveled all the way to England and beyond after Krakatoa erupted: sound waves that were inaudible to humans. Because extremely low frequency sound waves can travel much, much farther than higher frequencies, it’s specifically low-frequency sounds that can make these kinds of epic journeys. Scientists call this infrasound, and they’re listening for it, for a whole host of reasons. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization has 60 monitoring stations in 35 countries and uses infrasound to spot illegal nuclear detonations. The USArray, which is managed by a consortium of universities and government agencies, measures infrasound across the North American continent as a way of learning about seismology. Both these networks use microbarometers and low-frequency microphones, tracking modern infrasound similarly to the way scientists once tracked the infrasound from Krakatoa.
And there are many, many sounds to track, said Michael Hedlin. He and his wife, Catherine de Groot-Hedlin, run the Scripps Institution of Oceanography’s Laboratory for Atmospheric Acoustics and studies infrasound data. Hedlin can process that data — essentially just speeding it up — so that it becomes audible to human ears. Ghost sounds made flesh.
Hedlin’s sensors hear thunderstorms rolling through hundreds of miles away. They hear the sounds of coal mining as it happens in the next state. And then there are the more constant sounds. The wind blows. Waves on the ocean slap at each other. The inaudible signals travel hundreds of miles, sometimes thousands. When I called him from landlocked Minneapolis, Hedlin told me, “You’re probably immersed in sounds from the ocean you can’t hear.”
Milton Garces, the director of the Infrasound Laboratory at the Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, agreed. In particular, he told me that two sounds interfere with the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty network, because they are so constant, so pervasive and so loud. First are microbaroms, which happen on the edges of storms at sea, when two ocean waves traveling in opposite directions meet, amplifying each other into a wave that’s bigger than either was alone. The other is just the sound of the wind — which can reach infrasound decibel levels equivalent to those of a motorcycle. “We developed our hearing threshold so we don’t go nuts,” Garces told me. “If we had hearing perception in that band it would be difficult to communicate. It’s always there.”
Even with that protection, extremely loud infrasounds can still have an impact on our bodies. Humans exposed to infrasounds above 110 decibels experience changes in their blood pressure and respiratory rates. They get dizzy and have trouble maintaining their balance. In 1965, an Air Force experiment found that humans exposed to infrasound in the range of 151-153 decibels for 90 seconds began to feel their chests moving without their control. At a high enough decibel, the atmospheric pressure changes of infrasound can inflate and deflate lungs, effectively serving as a means of artificial respiration.
And that, Kara Jo, is why I don’t want to answer your question without also telling you about the loudest sound you cannot hear. That would be the Chelyabinsk meteor, which exploded in the sky over southern Russia, near the border between Europe and Asia, on Feb. 15, 2013. Test-Ban Treaty sensors picked up the infrasound more than 9,000 miles from the source and the sound waves circled the globe. The nearest sensor was 435 miles away, Garces told me, and even at that distance the infrasound decibel level reached 90. Turns out, things don’t have to say “boom” to go boom.
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